Formative Research on Behaviour Change Communication/ Information, Education and Communication (BCC/IEC) Programme in Health(Completed 2006)

This comprehensive study was conducted for National Health Education, Information and Communication Centre (NHEICC), Ministry of Health and Population.

The objectives for the formative BCC/IEC research were to address various aspects of public health, collect relevant data, analyse them and prepare a research report on different aspects of public health. The research addressed 20 interventions of essential health care services and beyond. Generally, each of the interventions are addressed by NHEICC by producing basic IEC print materials and some audio/visual materials but it was not known how focused or audience specific were they, whether they were evidence based or even pre-tested before finalisation and whether the messages/education reached the target audience.

This study covered 21 districts representing three ecological zones, 5 development regions and urban and rural areas of the country. Both qualitative and quantitative techniques were used to collect information on knowledge, attitude and behaviour of women of reproductive age 15-49 and men aged 15-59 on essential health care issues. In all, 54 clusters of 100 households each (5,400 households) were covered and from them one woman of reproductive age was interviewed while from every fifth household one male was interviewed.

Qualitative data were collected by conducting FGDs with married women of reproductive age (MWRA) 25-49, married men of reproductive age (MMRA) 25-59, married adolescent females 15-19, married adolescent males 15-19, married youth females 20-24, married youth males 20-24, unmarried adolescent females 10-14, and 15-19, unmarried adolescent males 10-14 and 15-19, unmarried youth males and females 20-24, FCHVs and Mothers-in-law.

In-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with married women of reproductive age (MWRA) 25-49, married men of reproductive age (MMRA) 25-59, adolescent females and males 15-19, unmarried adolescent females and males 10-14, political/ social leaders, NGO leaders, media persons, religious/cultural leaders, teachers, DHO/ PHOs, HETs, PHNs, HA/AHWs, ANMs, MCHWs, VHWs, traditional healers and FCHVs.

Besides many other findings, the study has shown that knowledge of communicable diseases has substantially increased among all types of respondents. The knowledge of TB is nearly universal and that of malaria and leprosy is also very high (Figure).

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